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Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km². It lies between the latitudes 14°53'54" N and 15°40'00" N and longitudes 73°40'33" E and 74°20'13" E. Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau. The highest point is the Sonsogor, with an altitude of 1,167 metres. Goa has a coastline of 101 km.

Goa's main rivers are the Mandovi, the Zuari, the Terekhol, Chapora River and the Betul. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the river Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km. Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs.

The main rivers weave their way throughout the state forming the inland waterways adding beauty and romance to the land besides being used to transport Goa's main export commodity of Iron and Manganese ore to Mormugao Harbour.

Goa's soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to plantation. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a warm and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35°C (95°F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.

Goa has a short cool season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by cool nights of around 20°C (68°F) and warm days of around 29°C (84°F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler.[2]

Panaji (Panjim) is the state capital located on the banks of the Mandovi River and Vasco, Margao, Mapusa and Ponda are the other major towns. Vasco-da-Gama (Vasco) its largest city. The most historic city is Margao which is second largest and with the Portuguese style of culture.

The vast green expanse of the Sahyadri mountain range ensures that Goa has an abundance of water.

Hinduism (65%), Catholicism (30%) and Islam are the three main religions in Goa.

The official language of Goa is Konkani. Following the end of Portuguese rule, the most widely used languages are Konkani as the primary spoken language; English for official, literary or educational purposes; and other languages including Marathi and Kannada. Hindi, India's national language is also spoken as a second language. Whereas, in the past, most people spoke Konkani, nowadays Hindi is increasingly heard due to large numbers of immigrants from the rest of India.

Subdivisions: The state is divided into two districts: North Goa and South Goa. Panaji is the headquarters of the north Goa district and Margao of the south district. Each district is governed by a district collector, an administrator appointed by the Indian government.

The districts are further divided into eleven talukas – Talukas of North Goa are Bardez, Bicholim, Pernem, Ponda, Satari and Tiswadi, the talukas of South Goa are Canacona, Mormugao, Quepem, Salcete and Sanguem. Headquarters of the respective talukas are Mapusa, Bicholim, Pernem, Ponda, Valpoi, Panjim, Chaudi, Vasco, Quepem, Margao and Sanguem.

In the Parliament of India, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha.
 
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