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Goa has a long history stretching back to the 3rd century BC, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire. Over the centuries various dynasties have ruled Goa.

Rashtrakutas, Kadambas, Silaharas, Chalukyas, Bahamani Muslims and most famously the Portuguese have been rulers of Goa.
In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first European to set foot in India through a sea route, landing in Calicut (Kozhikode) in Kerala, followed by an arrival in what is now known as Old Goa (Velha Goa).

Portuguese merchants landed in Goa in the 15th century, and annexed it soon after. In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. By mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits.

The Portuguese colony existed for about 450 years (one of the longest held colonial possessions in the world), until it was taken over by India in 1961. Goa was liberated by the Indian Army from Portuguese colonisation on December 1961 and became a Union Territory along with the enclaves of Daman and Diu. On May 30, 1987 Goa was conferred statehood and became the 25th state of the Indian Republic.
 
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